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The last decades of last century have seen the birth, growth and increasing centrality of the subject of the environment in state policies concerning the use of natural and territorial resources. The principles sanctioned by the international community on the limitation of resources, the protection and conservation of biological diversity, the integration of economic and environmental aspects according to environmentally sustainable development models aim to ensure the highest possible quality of life not only to the human populations present, but also to future generations.

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The strategic lines for the conservation of nature are covered in the European Union by the Habitat Directive no. 43 of 1992, which concerns precisely the conservation of natural habitats, wild flora and fauna. With this Directive, the Union proposes developing a European Ecological Network (EECONET) according to a project referred to as Natura 2000. This project identifies and protects differently according to importance, areas, sites and zones of great natural value. In Italy, therefore, as indeed in the other Member States of the Union, a national ecological network must be constitute that will result from the sum of all actions concretely performed both on a state and regional level. In order to prepare the national ecological network, parks and reserves will take on the role of inter-connected nodes and nodes connected with other areas of significant natural interest. They will also act as ecological corridors with 'buffer' and transition zones, thereby constructing a proper 'environmental infrastructure' to all intents and purposes, extended to the entire territory. In the relationship between man and territory, by limiting the reduction of habitats and identifying the load capacity compatible with the characteristics of the surrounding environment, the ecological network should provide a valid tool by which to fight genetic erosion and biological simplification, instead focusing on the conciliation of human needs with the highest content of biodiversity in the environment.

According to the purposes supported by the European Union treaty, "to pursue the concept of sustainability implies research for economic development strategies that respect the environment and work towards a balanced territorial organisation, in order that the path towards globalisation should strive to seek respect of local identities, in all their natural and anthropic values"

With Regional Law no. 42 dated 30th September 1996, the region of Friuli Venezia Giulia redesigns the system of regional protected natural areas. From that time on, the protection of nature continued through various forms of territorial protection, including regional nature parks and reserves, complex structures instituted by the law, which introduce an extraordinary territorial management model.

 

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